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放射線

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Some call it the Phantom Death, 'cause that's what it is. You can't see it, you can't hear it, you can't even smell it. It basically builds up in your system. You never feel it until it's too late.

Jake, Fallout

放射線(Radiation)是核爆之後的殘餘現象,有很長的存在周期(半衰期從數天到百萬年不等)。該物質的來源主要是裂變後的殘餘廢料。另一種可能來源,是炸彈與外界環境中非放射性同位素捕捉到中子所產生。放射線是輻射系列的重要元素,也是遊戲的創新特點。

自然界中的放射線编辑

短期存在的同位素快速地釋放衰弱的能量,產生劇烈變化且迅速衰落的放射性場。長期存在的同位素能長時間地釋放能量,產生的放射線略微溫和但更持久。裂變起初會產生高等級的放射性源,同樣衰減迅速,不過隨著放射性減弱,衰落速率也下降。

這些放射性物質降落到地面成為輻射塵時,會及其危險。輻射程度主要取決於核爆高度,其次是核爆體積。假若核爆是真正空中爆裂(火球並未觸及地面),當氣化的放射性物質冷凝後濃縮並固化,其顆粒也會轉化為如此狀態。這些顆粒大部分由升起的火球帶入大氣高層,一部分由於火球產生的對流循環而沉積在底部。核爆規模越大,頂部的輻射塵就積累得越高越快,在底層所佔比例就越小。當核爆場強小於100kT時,火球不會高於對流層--該處形成雨雪。所有的輻射塵因此將由氣候在數月(通常更短)內,降落回地面。若是兆噸當量,火球會直升入同溫層。同溫層是乾燥,不會有任何氣候過程存在並將輻射迅速帶回。微型輻射顆粒緩慢下降,通常需要數月甚至數年。當此類長期推遲的輻射塵最終抵達地面時,其危險性已經減低很多,而且散布在全球範圍內。若場強越高於100kT,越多的輻射塵抵達同溫層。

當核爆與地面接近(進到接觸到地面),將吸收大量塵土進入火球。這些塵土並不會氣化--若氣化了,大部分將會形成大顆粒。放射性同位素沉積成固體顆粒,並快速返回地面。輻射塵會在數分鐘至幾天內沉積形成,在附近至數千公里範圍帶來順風的污染物。最劇烈的放射源是就近輻射塵,因為該處高度沉積,同時短周期同位素還未衰減。氣候因素會給該過程造成可觀的影響。通常情況,降雨將輻射塵以降水形式帶回地面,形成厚密度的地面聚集。外部接觸放射源,或是內部接觸(吸收放射性物質)會嚴重損害健康。不接觸但接近地面的核爆,將產生中子活動,當低於噴發點時仍會帶來危險。這些中子會被土壤吸收,在接下數小時內產生大量放射線。

計量方式编辑

拉德(rad)是用來計量區域輻射放射水平的單位。當避難所科技工業公司開始興建避難所時,同時也安裝了可監測輻射放射線水平的感測器。檢測結果通過公共通告系統向避難所居民公布。

在101號避難所的2268年7月13日,公共通告系統通告輻射水平--"目前放射水平-0拉德,如同往常。"("Current radiation level - 0 rads, as always.")

現實世界中,拉德(rad)是真實的計量單位,等於每千克0.01焦耳(1拉德意味著0.01焦耳的物質被1千克物質吸收),也即輻射吸收劑量(radiation absorbed dose)。

Ghoul .jpg

盗尸鬼,曾经的人类在吸收了大量的辐射放射线后变异。

變異编辑

大部分在廢土生存的變異生物都是由輻射導致。生物變異可能是直接來源於暴露在核彈爆炸後的輻射中。因為離子化的輻射(核彈輻射的主要類型)是由高能粒子組成,具有從分子和原子捕獲電子的能力。如此一來便對活的有機體構成極度威脅,因為其能替換生物的DNA,進而變異--例如組織和器官無法正常生長。很有可能變異是由爆炸釋放的放射顆粒所致。儘管如此,環境中放射性同位素(例如輻射)若是進入有機體身體,也能導致變異。例如,一隻哺乳動物吸收Ca-45--鈣的不穩定同位素,身體會認為是正常的鈣並將其沉積於生物骨骼中,日積月累便病變為骨癌。

這便是巨型螞蟻, 蜥蜴, 孢子植物, 輻射蠍, 雙頭牛以及其它變異體的起源。同樣,這也是盜屍鬼--外表衰老,衣衫襤褸,幾乎腐爛,像殭屍般輻射受害者--的由來。在輻射1中,大部分盜屍鬼來自12號避難所--位於貝克斯菲爾德市的地底,戰後成為古城墓地--居民。作為龐大的避難所實驗計劃一部分,12號避難所大門設計成無法正確關閉鎖死。因而,大量的輻射塵進入避難所,將大部分居民轉變成為現在的盜屍鬼。通常,在輻射世界中,大劑量暴露於輻射會致死,但長時間持續暴露於此能將人轉化為盜屍鬼。與超級變種人相似,盜屍鬼也是不育的。廢土上的盜屍鬼只有一代且為最後一代。進一步而言,盜屍鬼的轉變也使得其活得相當長。在2077年Great War中轉變的盜屍鬼,直到2241仍在世,即便到了輻射3和輻射:新維加斯時期(2277-2281)也起居如常。盜屍鬼的智商與正常人一樣,不過部分會逐漸失去理智而轉變為野鬼。即便如此,他們極度醜陋的外表和身體的脆弱使日常生活非常艱辛。盜屍鬼天生對輻射免疫--事實上,輻射還能治癒他們的傷口。

無需質疑,以上不過是戰前社會留下的浩劫後果之一(可從輻射3中得知):從各色移動載具到登月火箭,裂變電池到黑暗中發光的可樂,放射性物質被廣泛使用於各種用途,人們在生活中無避免地暴露於各種日常用品中含有的輻射中。即便是"炸彈落下"後,"廢土"中的居民對放射性物質仍沒有抗拒心理:例如,名為"兆噸鎮"("Megaton")的定居點建立在一枚未引爆的原子彈周圍,而一些居民甚至組成了the Children of Atom cult來膜拜這枚核彈。

輻射世界中的放射源编辑

大部分戰前社會都廣泛使用放射性物質,從核裂變車到含有放射性的軟性飲料,世界的大部分地區對日常生活持續使用放射性物質習以為常。部分歸因於隨處可見的RadAway和Rad-X,可用於治療普通公民的放射性中毒。

通常,暴露於放射線的主因是食用污染過的食物或水。大部分水源,特別是在凈水計劃啟動前,是受到污染的。各種水源受污染程度皆不同,而飲用污染水源通常比直接接觸水還危險。

核彈頭造成的彈坑具有高輻射放射性,例如輻射3中的87號避難所或輻射:新維加斯中的黑山。

其餘主要放射源是戰前的核廢料庫。這些棕色或是白色桶能在不同地點見到,於近處發射出中低水平的放射線。在輻射世界中,大型廢料場可向更廣闊範圍輻射高能級放射線。儘管現實世界限制堆放核廢料,儘管抗議,輻射世界戰前似乎沒過多限制而且堆放是很常見的,可能是由於廣泛使用的產品和實驗產生大量的廢料所致。在新維加斯的REPCONN Headquarters,造訪工廠時可見紀念匾上書寫關於堆放廢料的事(甚至許可堆放在政府負責的學校之內),對此(他們認為)是明確無害的。

遊戲中效果编辑

Fallout, Fallout 2, Fallout Tactics编辑

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Notes编辑

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輻射3编辑

Rads Level Effect
0-199 No Effect
200-399 Minor Radiation Poisoning -1 END
400-599 Advanced Radiation Poisoning -2 END, -1 AGL
600-799 Critical Radiation Poisoning -3 END, -2 AGL, -1 STR
800-999 Deadly Radiation Poisoning -3 END, -2 AGL, -2 STR
1000+ Fatal Radiation Poisoning DEATH (HP: -10,000)

吃喝大部分食物或是進入輻射區域,都會自動吸收輻射。當吸收劑量達到一定閾值時,孤遊者會損失S.P.E.C.I.A.L. 屬性值,而到1000拉德時便死亡。放射線並不直接影響生命值,但通過減少耐力,孤遊者的最大健康值會降低。

The Pip-Boy 3000's dosimeter will appear in the upper right whenever you are exposed. There are five major ticks (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 rads), with minor ticks at multiples of 66.67, e.g., 67, 133, 200, 267, 333, 400, etc. You can also check your rad status in your Pip-Boy to see your rad resistance and rad level.

There is also a dial in the upper-left of your Pip-Boy that shows the approximate radiation level. This meter is difficult to read however, due to the needle's constant movement.

Rad exposure is usually limited; only very rarely will zones be so irradiated that venturing into them results in a quick death. You have to stand in +1 rad water for a long time to die (16 minutes and 40 seconds), and more generally, you can splash briefly through radioactive water dozens of times before you reach the barely-annoying 200 rad threshold.

The quickest way to die of massive exposure is near the surface entrance to Vault 87, where radiation can reach up to 3,932 rads per second. (It's possible to reach the entrance by frequently pausing to use RadAway, but you need tons of it.) Jumping into the river off the Pitt Bridge is the second quickest way, reaching upwards of 600 rads a second. Trying to enter the G.E.C.K. chamber of Vault 87 is the third quickest way. Although it starts at 1 rad per second, it virtually doubles every couple of seconds, until you're receiving about 400 rads per second. Also, if you use the save-before-you-fall glitch, the mouth of the blast furnace in the Steelyard is upward of 400 rads a second.

Rads can be flushed by:

Radiation can be resisted by equipping certain types of apparel, such as radiation suits or power armor. A dose of the chem Rad-X also grants the player a radiation resistance based on his or her Medicine skill, but the effects do not stack. This resistance is applied to all sources of radiation, from the external environment to irradiated consumables.

The Lead Belly perk halves the rads you take from any irradiated water you drink while the Rad Resistance and Cyborg perks raise your overall radiation resistance. Also, if you complete the 'contract radiation sickness' part of The Wasteland Survival Guide with a reading of 600 rads or more (the optional objective), you gain the Rad Regeneration perk.

In Fallout 3, all non-player characters are immune to radiation. This explains why non-player characters like Confessor Cromwell (who stands in irradiated water at almost all times) don't die from radiation poisoning. Certain enemies, such as glowing ones or centaurs, have radiation-based attacks that can increase the player's rads.

輻射: 新維加斯编辑

Fallout: New Vegas uses the same radiation mechanics as Fallout 3, keeping some perks, such as Lead Belly, Rad Resistance and Rad Absorption, while adding a new perks, Rad Child and Atomic!

Ways to remove radiation poisoning include

Highly irradiated zones编辑

Fallout编辑

  • The Glow, with instant death awaiting any who venture without lots of Rad-X and RadAway.

Fallout 2编辑

Fallout 3编辑

All numbers assume no protection.

Fallout: New Vegas编辑

  • Camp Searchlight, with as much as 28 rads per second in the town center.
  • Jack Rabbit springs, a place crawling with centaurs and hot springs peaking at 10 rads per second when swimming.
  • Cottonwood Crater is a nuclear impact site, located South of Cottonwood Cove. It has a pool of irradiated water in the middle, with golden geckos walking around. Beware of high radiation levels, peaking at 7 rads per second.
  • Crescent Canyon East/Crescent Canyon West, with barrels of radioactive material lying around. This area has a maximum of 5-6 rads per second.
  • Vault 34 contains constant background radiation (+1), reaching up to +5 in the lower levels and +13 by the barrels in the cave entrance.
  • The Devil's Throat, 6+ near the barrels and water
  • Around and near Black Mountain, +4 near the crater and dying off near there.
  • Cottonwood Cove, if the player releases the radioactive barrels the exterior camp will become irradiated, though interior areas will not.
  • Mesquite Mountains Crater
  • Powder Ganger Camp West, located near here (left at the Corvega billboard when heading south) is a puddle with many toxic barrels producing 3 rads/sec at its peak.
  • South of Poseidon Gas Station there is a large patch of toxic barrels and irradiated mud.
  • Ground zero at Dry Wells gets up to 234 rads/second. Lonesome Road (add-on)Lonesome Road (add-on)
  • Outside by Old nuclear test site the crater gets up to 20 rads/second.

Notes编辑

  • In Fallout 3 nearly any puddle of filth-infested liquid will contain at least some rads per second, however, most of these similar puddles in Fallout New Vegas do not contain any rads whatsoever.
  • If for any reason, going to your Pip-Boy to eat or drink anything that will make your rad level cross the 1001-Rad death threshold, a notice will say that you are affected by "fatal rad poisoning". At this instant you will not die; however exiting the Pip-Boy without taking any RadAway that would lower your radiation below 1001 will kill you instantly. If you do this it is interesting to note that fatal rad poisoning has an effect of -10000 HP so if there is a way to increase max HP in the console, then it could be possible to live with this stage of radiation without making yourself invincible. Another interesting thing to note about this stage of poisoning is that it will immediately drop your HP by 100, and each stimpak will decrease it by the amount they would normally heal you.
  • For short-ranged players it may actually be worth playing with 400 rads if you have the Rad Regeneration perk, and you don't mind the loss in Endurance and Agility. The regeneration of limbs is very fast, as any crippled limb will heal within a few seconds.
  • If you die in Fallout: New Vegas from drinking irradiated water, upon death the red diamond with exclamation point (same as the modded weathered 10mm pistol pre-patch) will appear.
  • Radiation in the Fallout games is less lethal than it is in the real world. For example, common symptoms of radiation sickness (such as nausea and vomiting) will appear at around 1000 mGy (100 Rads). 4000 mGy (400 Rads) will lead to death in 50% of cases within a few weeks. 6000 mGy (600 Rads) will lead to death in 95% of cases. At 10000 mGy (1000 Rads) a human will die immediately.[1][2]

References编辑

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